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Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is m2 Au with a half-life of 2. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths.
The first synthesis of gold was conducted by Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaokawho synthesized gold from mercury in by neutron bombardment.
Only the mercury isotope Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0. Other mercury isotopes are converted when irradiated with slow neutrons into one another, or formed mercury isotopes which beta decay into thallium.
Using fast neutronsthe mercury isotope Hg, which composes 9. This reaction, however, possesses a smaller activation cross-section and is feasible only with un-moderated reactors.
It is also possible to eject several neutrons with very high energy into the other mercury isotopes in order to form Hg. However, such high-energy neutrons can be produced only by particle accelerators. Au Ireferred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with soft ligands such as thioethersthiolatesand tertiary phosphines.
Au I compounds are typically linear. The binary gold halidessuch as AuClform zigzag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au.
Most drugs based on gold are Au I derivatives. The gold atom centers in Au III complexes, like other d8 compounds, are typically square planarwith chemical bonds that have both covalent and ionic character. Gold does not react with sulfur directly,  but gold III sulfide can be made by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute solution of gold III chloride or chlorauric acid.
Gold readily dissolves in mercury at room temperature to form an amalgamand forms alloys with many other metals at higher temperatures. These alloys can be produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control melting point or to create exotic colors.
It does not react with hydrofluorichydrochlorichydrobromichydriodicsulfuricor nitric acid. It does react with selenic acidand is dissolved by aqua regiaa 1: Gold is similarly unaffected by most bases. It does not react with aqueoussolidor molten sodium or potassium hydroxide.
It does however, react with sodium or potassium cyanide under alkaline conditions when oxygen is present to form soluble complexes.
Gold ions in solution are readily reduced and precipitated as metal by adding any other metal as the reducing agent. The added metal is oxidized and dissolves, allowing the gold to be displaced from solution and be recovered as a solid precipitate. Caesium auride CsAufor example, crystallizes in the caesium chloride motif;  rubidium, potassium, and tetramethylammonium aurides are also known.
The interaction is estimated to be comparable in strength to that of a hydrogen bond. Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous. Medicinal uses Medicinal applications of gold and its complexes have a long history dating back thousands of years. Both gold I and gold III compounds have been have been investigated as possible anti-cancer drugs.
Stable complexes can be generated using different types of bi- tri- and tetradentate ligand systems and their high efficacy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.
The present erosion level is shown.
Johannesburg is located where the Witwatersrand Basin the yellow layer is exposed at the "present surface" line, just inside the crater rim, on the left. Gold is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesisand from the collision of neutron stars and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed.
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